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Medicaid Birthing Model Improves Outcomes

A federal program to improve birth outcomes among Medicaid-covered women has produced positive results:  lower rates of pre-term births, fewer low birthweight babies, fewer C-sections, lower delivery costs, and lower first-year health care spending.

The “Strong Start for Mothers and Newborns” program was a four-year initiative established by the Affordable Care Act and developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation to employ patient education, nutrition, exercise, preparation for childbirth, breast-feeding, and family planning rather than strictly medical interventions and was delivered through three evidence-based prenatal care models:  Birth Centers, Group Prenatal Care, and Maternity Care Homes.

The program, operated in 219 separate sites in 32 states, served participants with especially challenging socio-economic risk factors:  unemployment, lack of a high school degree or GED, food insecurity, transportation challenges, chronic health problems, and previous poor birth outcomes.  The objective of the program was to find ways to overcome these social determinants of health and produce better birth outcomes and now, a new, independent evaluation has found that it did.

Learn more about Strong Start for Mothers and Newborns and what it has produced in the official program evaluation document.

NQF to Medicaid: Do a Better Job of Addressing Social Determinants of Health

State Medicaid programs need to do a better job of measuring and addressing the social risks their patients face, the National Quality Forum has asserted in a new report.

To do so, NQF concluded, state Medicaid programs should “…work more with healthcare organizations and communities to better manage social disparities.”

How?

According to the NQF, state Medicaid programs should:

  • Acknowledge that Medicaid has a role in addressing social needs that impact health.
  • Create a comprehensive, accessible, routinely updated list of local community resources for healthcare organizations.
  • Harmonize tools that assess social needs that impact health to ensure that they collect and document the same type of information.
  • Create standards for inputting and extracting social needs data from electronic health records to strengthen information sharing between health and non-health providers and programs
  • Increase information sharing between government agencies.
  • Expand the use of waivers and demonstration projects to begin to learn what works best for screening and addressing social needs that impact health.

Learn more about how the NQF wants state Medicaid programs to address the social determinants of health in the new report Food Insecurity and Housing Instability Final Report, a link to which can be found here.

Serving High-Risk Patients Leads to VPB Penalties

Practices that served more socially high-risk patients had lower quality and lower costs, and practices that served more medically high-risk patients had lower quality and higher costs. These patterns were associated with fewer bonuses and more penalties for high-risk practices.

So concludes a new study that looked at the results of the first year of the Medicare Physician Value-Based Payment Modifier Program.

The study looked at 899 physician practices serving more than five million Medicare beneficiaries, and it points to the continuing challenge of how best to serve patients who pose greater socio-economic risks than the average patient.

Private safety-net hospitals serve far more high-risk patients than the typical American hospital.

Learn more these findings and how they were reached in the study “Association of Practice-Level Social and Medical Risk With Performance in the Medicare Physician Value-Based Payment Modifier Program,” which can be found here, on the web site of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

New Study: Social Risk Factors Affect Provider Performance and Patient Outcomes

Medicare patients with social risk factors fare worse than others in programs that measure quality and the providers that serve them also perform worse than others on quality measures.

This news comes from a new report presented to Congress by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning Evaluation.

ASPEsealThe report, mandated by the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation (IMPACT) Act of 2014, focused on nine Medicare payment programs:

  1. the hospital readmissions reduction program
  2. the hospital value-based purchasing program
  3. the hospital acquired condition reduction program
  4. the Medicare Advantage (Part C) quality star rating program
  5. the Medicare shared savings program
  6. the physician value-based payment modifier program
  7. the end-stage renal disease quality incentive program
  8. the skilled nursing facility value-based purchasing program
  9. the home health value-based purchasing program

APSE concluded that:

  • Beneficiaries with social risk factors had worse outcomes on many quality measures, regardless of the providers they saw, and dual enrollment status was the most powerful predictor of poor outcomes.
  • Providers that disproportionately served beneficiaries with social risk factors tended to have worse performance on quality measures, even after accounting for their beneficiary mix. Under all five value-based purchasing programs in which penalties are currently assessed, these providers experienced somewhat higher penalties than did providers serving fewer beneficiaries with social risk factors.

Among the solutions suggested in the report for addressing these problems are:

  • adjusting quality and resource use measures
  • adjusting payments
  • addressing the underlying issues

The report also suggests that HHS’s strategy for accounting for social risk in Medicare’s value-based purchasing programs should consist of the following three steps:

  • measure and report quality for beneficiaries with social risk factors
  • set high, fair quality standards for all beneficiaries
  • reward and support better outcomes for beneficiaries with social risk factors

And in carrying out these steps, the report recommends that HHS

  • provide specific payment adjustments to reward achievement and/or improvement for beneficiaries with social risk factors, and
  • where feasible, provide targeted support for providers who disproportionately serve them.

NAUH has long maintained that some of Medicare’s quality-related programs are unfair to private safety-net hospitals because of the socio-economic challenges faced by so many of the patients these hospitals serve.  The APSE analysis confirms NAUH’s view on this issue.

Learn more about the problems APSE found and its proposals for dealing with those problems by reading Report to Congress: Social Risk Factors and Performance Under Medicare’s Value-Based Purchasing Programs.

Social Determinants and Health Care

Amid growing recognition that social factors play at least much a role in the health of communities as medical care, growing attention is being paid to how best to address those social determinants in a health care system.

With increasing use of alternative delivery models such as accountable care organizations, some approaches place health care at the heart of a hub-and-spoke model to address population health, supported by functions such as affordable housing, home health care, job training, and more. Another approach places community organizations at the hub of care models, with the health care system as a spoke feeding into that hub.

Stock PhotoSocio-economic issues that affect the health of communities are among the biggest challenges private safety-net hospitals face ­– challenges that take them well beyond their ability to provide quality care to their patients.

A recent article on the Health Affairs Blog explores the hub-and-spoke approach to addressing the social determinants that play such a major role in population health. Go here to read the blog article “Defining The Health Care System’s Role In Addressing Social Determinants And Population Health.”